Take a perfect sphere and cut it into exactly two equal halves. The surface area of the cut (A in the figure below) is exactly Pi
times the radius of the sphere squared. How much bigger is the surface area of the half sphere than the
area of the cut? Is it 1.5 times bigger? Is it 3 times bigger? It can be proved that the surface area
of the half sphere is exactly 2.00000000000000...etc... times the area of the cut. It seems odd that this
would be exactly true? It just is.

It turns out that two key force laws that shape our universe (Coulomb’s law and Newton’s law of gravity) are a
result of this same perfect ratio of 2.
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